viernes, 25 de mayo de 2012

Safety Publications / Articles


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Training

  • Instructor's Guide to the Pre-solo Written Test

Crédito: AOPA

747 Operating Procedures



Index of Contents: 

1. Aircraft Specifications
2. Flight Procedures
3. Operations & Guidance
4. Emergency Procedures
5. Fuel Usage & Calculations
6. Acknowledgements
7. Appendices

Crédito: The Boeing Company


Fokker 50 Aeroplane Operating Matters



This Operations Manual is intended to serve as guideline for airBaltic pilots operating Fokker 50 (F50) aircraft. It covers company policies, operating procedures and limitations as well as applicable rules and regulations for operations of F50 aircraft.

The manual is applicable to all Flight Crew operating Fokker 50 under responsibility of airBaltic. 

Operating personnel is responsible to comply with the procedures and regulations contained in this Operations Manual at all times; in the event of wilful or negligent disobedience to those rules and regulations the personnel concerned may become subject to disciplinary, legal or penal action!

However, nothing contained in the Operations Manual shall prevent personnel from exercising their own best judgement during any situation for which the Operations Manual makes no provisions or in an emergency situation.

The commander of the aircraft has the authority and responsibility to declare an emergency situation whenever deemed necessary. He is authorized to deviate from any procedures and regulations and to follow any course of action deemed necessary in the interests of safety in an emergency situation. 

Crédito: airBaltic

747-400 Standard Operating Procedures



The endeavour of the manufacturer, as a seller, is to present the customer with an efficient means of commercial transportation, not complicated, in terms of maintenance or flight operations. Therefore the manufacturer usually presents the minimum procedures required by an experienced and trained crew. However, in practice, we have to supplement the manufacturer’s recommended procedure and adapt it to our environment.

The Air India Standard Operating Procedures (SOPs) are designed to streamline operational procedures. They provide the crew with a step-by-step guidance for carrying out their tasks in a safe & predictable manner.

These SOPs clarify line procedures, but do not replace the information contained in the Airplane Flight Manual and such documents. The SOPs should not be over-shadowed by inter personal relations or other peripheral issues which tend to affect the safe conduct of a flight.

Crédito: Capt. V.Kulkarni

lunes, 21 de mayo de 2012

Frozen in the sands of time: Eerie Second World War RAF fighter plane discovered in the Sahara... 70 years after it crashed in the desert

Frozen in the sands of time: Eerie Second World War RAF fighter plane discovered in the Sahara... 70 years after it crashed in the desert

  • Pilot of the Kittyhawk P-40 was thought to have survived crash, but died trying to walk out of the desert
  • Aircraft was found almost perfectly preserved, unseen and untouched, after it came down in 1942
  • Historian describes find as 'an incredible time capsule' and 'the aviation equivalent of Tutankhamun's Tomb'
He was hundreds of miles from civilisation, lost in the burning heat of the desert.
Second World War Flight Sergeant Dennis Copping took what little he could from the RAF Kittyhawk he had just crash-landed, then wandered into the emptiness.
From that day in June 1942 the mystery of what happened to  the dentist’s son from Southend was lost, in every sense, in the sands of time.
Shifting sands: The final resting place of the Kittyhawk P-40 has been discovered in the Sahara 70 years after it crashed there
Shifting sands: The final resting place of the Kittyhawk P-40 has been discovered in the Sahara 70 years after it crashed there

Time capsule: Aside from the damage it sustained during impact, the aircraft appears to have been almost perfectly preserved in the sands of the Sahara
Time capsule: Aside from the damage it sustained during impact, the aircraft appears to have been almost perfectly preserved in the sands of the Sahara

Chance discovery: The single-seater aircraft was found by a Polish oil company worker exploring a remote region of the western desert in Egypt
Chance discovery: The single-seater aircraft was found by a Polish oil company worker exploring a remote region of the western desert in Egypt


But 70 years later, the ghostly remains of his battered but almost perfectly preserved plane has been discovered.
Like a time capsule that could provide the key to his disappearance, it had lain intact alongside a makeshift shelter Dennis appears to have made as he waited, hopelessly, for rescue.
Now a search is to begin for the airman’s remains – as aviation experts and historians begin an operation to recover and display the P-40 aircraft in his memory.
The chance find was made by an oil worker exploring a remote region of the Western Desert in Egypt. It is more than 200 miles from the nearest town in a vast expanse of largely featureless terrain.
Flight Sergeant Copping, part of a fighter unit based in Egypt during the North Africa campaign against Rommel, is believed to have lost his bearings while flying the damaged Kittyhawk to another airbase for repair. All that is known is that he went off course and was never seen again.
At the controls: The plane's cockpit, but there are fears over what will be left of it after locals began stripping parts and instruments for souvenirs and scrap
At the controls: The plane's cockpit, but there are fears over what will be left of it after locals began stripping parts and instruments for souvenirs and scrap

Unseen and untouched: Equipment and controls from the plane were found scattered around the crashed craft
Unseen and untouched: Equipment and controls from the plane were found scattered around the crashed craft
Unseen and untouched: Equipment and controls from the plane were found scattered around the craft at the crash site. The plane is still in very good condition

Intact: Most of the plane's cockpit instruments were untouched and it still had it guns and ammunition before they were seized by the Egyptian military for safety reasons
Intact: Most of the plane's cockpit instruments were untouched and it still had it guns and ammunition before they were seized by the Egyptian military for safety reasons


Remarkably, the plane remained almost untouched for the next seven decades – right down to the guns and ammunition found with it. Most of the cockpit instruments are intact, and the twisted propeller lies a few feet from the fuselage.
Crucially, the P-40’s identification plates are untouched – allowing researchers to track its provenance and service history.
There is flak damage in the fuselage, which is consistent with documents on the aircraft. Historian Andy Saunders said: ‘It is a quite incredible time capsule. It’s the  aviation equivalent of Tutankhamun’s tomb.
‘This plane has been lying in the same spot where it crashed 70 years ago.
‘It hasn’t been hidden in the sand, it has just sat there.
‘He must have survived the crash because one photo shows a parachute around the frame of the plane and my guess is the poor bloke used it to shelter from the sun. The radio and batteries were out of the plane and it looks like he tried to get it working.
Second World War weaponry: The machine gun on the wing of the crashed plane. It appears the pilot got into trouble and brought it down in the middle of the desert
Second World War weaponry: The machine gun on the wing of the crashed plane. It appears the pilot got into trouble and brought it down in the middle of the desert

Bullet holes: The Kittyhawk appears to have been shot at
Scattered remains: The propeller of the Second World War plane
Bullet holes: The Kittyhawk appears to have been shot at (left), while its broken propeller lays nearby (right). Historians have described the find as the 'aviation equivalent of Tutankhamun's Tomb'

Well-preserved: The Kittyhawk's magazine of bullets were also found in the wreckage. The radio and batteries were discovered out of the plane
Well-preserved: The Kittyhawk's magazine of bullets were also found in the wreckage. The radio and batteries were discovered out of the plane



‘If he died at the side of the plane his remains would have been found. Once he had crashed there, nobody was going to come and get him. It is more likely he tried to walk out of the desert but ended up walking to his death. It is too hideous to contemplate.’
The RAF Museum in Hendon, North London, has been made aware of the find and plans are already under way to recover it before anyone tries to strip it for scrap or souvenirs. Efforts have also been made to trace any immediate members of Flight Sergeant Copping’s family in the UK, but it is believed that none survives.
Captain Paul Collins, British defence attaché to Egypt, confirmed a search would be mounted for the airman’s remains but admitted it was ‘extremely unlikely’ it would be successful. The spot could be marked as a war grave after the aircraft is recovered.
Heading home: The RAF Museum at Hendon, north London, has been made aware of the discovery and plans are underway to recover the aircraft for exhibition in the future
Heading home: The RAF Museum at Hendon, north London, has been made aware of the discovery and plans are underway to recover the aircraft for exhibition in the future

The Kittyhawk factory stamp
The Kittyhawk's gun loading instruction panel
Sign of the time: The Kittyhawk's factory stamp (left) and gun loading instruction panel (right). However, some locals see the aircraft as a piece of junk

Signs of survival: Flight Sergeant Dennis Copping's parachute was part of what is believed to be a makeshift camp alongside the fuselage
Signs of survival: Flight Sergeant Dennis Copping's parachute was part of what is believed to be a makeshift camp alongside the fuselage

Remote: The crash site is about 200 miles from the nearest town. No human remains have been found but it is thought the pilot's decomposed body may lay anywhere in a 20 mile radius of the plane
Remote: The crash site is about 200 miles from the nearest town. No human remains have been found but it is thought the pilot's decomposed body may lay anywhere in a 20 mile radius of the plane



Captain Collins added: ‘The scene is close to a smuggling line from Sudan and Libya.
‘We will need to go there with the Egyptian army because it is a dangerous area.’
Ian Thirsk, of the RAF Museum, confirmed staff are working with the MoD to recover the plane.
The P-40 was a US-made fighter and ground attack aircraft. It was outclassed by later German fighters and saw little combat in Europe but performed a key role in North Africa  and Asia where high-altitude performance was less critical. Around 20 are still airworthy.
Did you know Flight Sergeant Dennis Copping? Are you related to the brave pilot? Contact editorial@dailymailonline.co.uk
In flight: Ft Sgt Copping and another airman were tasked with flying two damaged Kittyhawk P-40 planes (like this one) from one British airbase in northern Egypt to another for repair
In flight: Ft Sgt Copping and another airman were tasked with flying two damaged Kittyhawk P-40 planes (like this one) from one British airbase in northern Egypt to